Urban Pollution: Science and Management

Author:   Susanne M. Charlesworth ,  Colin A. Booth
Publisher:   John Wiley & Sons Inc
ISBN:  

9781119260486


Pages:   464
Publication Date:   21 December 2018
Format:   Hardback
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Urban Pollution: Science and Management


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Overview

Multidisciplinary treatment of the urgent issues surrounding urban pollution worldwide Written by some of the top experts on the subject in the world, this book presents the diverse, complex and current themes of the urban pollution debate across the built environment, urban development and management continuum. It uniquely combines the science of urban pollution with associated policy that seeks to control it, and includes a comprehensive collection of international case studies showing the status of the problem worldwide. Urban Pollution: Science and Management is a multifaceted collection of chapters that address the contemporary concomitant issues of increasing urban living and associated issues with contamination by offering solutions specifically for the built environment. It covers: the impacts of urban pollution; historical urban pollution; evolution of air quality policy and management in urban areas; ground gases in urban environments; bioaccessibility of trace elements in urban environments; urban wastewater collection, treatment, and disposal; living green roofs; light pollution; river ecology; greywater recycling and reuse; containment of pollution from urban waste disposal sites; bioremediation in urban pollution mitigation; air quality monitoring; urban pollution in China and India; urban planning in sub-Saharan Africa and more. Deals with both the science and the relevant policy and management issues Examines the main sources of urban pollution Covers both first-world and developing world urban pollution issues Integrates the latest scientific research with practical case studies Deals with both legacy and emerging pollutants and their effects The integration of physical and environmental sciences, combined with social, economic and political sciences and the use of case studies makes Urban Pollution: Science and Management an incredibly useful resource for policy experts, scientists, engineers and those interested in the subject.

Full Product Details

Author:   Susanne M. Charlesworth ,  Colin A. Booth
Publisher:   John Wiley & Sons Inc
Imprint:   John Wiley & Sons Inc
Dimensions:   Width: 17.80cm , Height: 2.60cm , Length: 26.00cm
Weight:   1.278kg
ISBN:  

9781119260486


ISBN 10:   1119260485
Pages:   464
Publication Date:   21 December 2018
Audience:   Professional and scholarly ,  Professional & Vocational
Format:   Hardback
Publisher's Status:   Active
Availability:   To order   Availability explained
Stock availability from the supplier is unknown. We will order it for you and ship this item to you once it is received by us.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors xvii 1 Insights and Issues into the Impacts of Urban Pollution 1 Colin A. Booth and Susanne M. Charlesworth 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Examples of Urban Pollution 2 1.3 Structure of This Book 4 1.4 Conclusions 5 References 5 2 Historical Urban Pollution 7 Ann Power and Annie Worsley 2.1 Introduction 7 2.2 Historical Pollution Monitoring using Environmental Archives 8 2.3 Ancient Air Pollution 8 2.4 Industrial Revolution 10 2.5 Twentieth?Century Urban Pollution 13 2.6 Industrial Emissions 16 2.7 Transport 18 2.8 Conclusions 20 References 20 3 Evolution of Air Quality Policy and Management in Urban Areas 29 Enda Hayes 3.1 Introduction 29 3.2 Sources of Urban Air Pollution 29 3.3 Health Implications of Urban Air Pollution 30 3.4 Historical Context of Air Quality Policy and Management 30 3.5 Future Urban Challenges 34 3.6 Conclusions 36 References 36 4 UK and EU Water Policy as an Instrument of Urban Pollution 39 Anne?Marie McLaughlin, Susanne M. Charlesworth, and Stephen J. Coupe Acronyms used in This Chapter 39 4.1 Introduction 39 4.2 Determining Water Quality 40 4.3 UK Water Policy 41 4.4 Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) 46 4.5 European Policy 49 4.6 The Future 51 4.7 Conclusions 53 References 54 5 Soil Quality and Policy 57 J. Webb, Jose L. Rubio, and Michael A. Fullen 5.1 Introduction 57 5.2 Soil Pollutants and Their Sources 57 5.3 Consequences of Urban Soil Pollution 58 5.4 Soils Legislation 61 5.5 Conclusions 65 References 66 6 Ground Gases in Urban Environments - Sources and Solutions 69 Andrew B. Shuttleworth 6.1 Introduction 69 6.2 The Biochemistry of Ground Gas Production 71 6.3 Ground Gas Monitoring and Risk Assessment 73 6.5 Other Approaches 76 6.6 Passive Barriers and Subfloor Ventilation 77 6.7 Practical Examples of Gas Protection Details 79 6.8 Pathway Interception Systems for Receptor Protection and Control of Historic Sources 82 6.9 Examples of Other Techniques and Solutions: Biodegradation of Gaseous Pollutants 86 6.10 Conclusion 87 References 87 7 Insights and Issues of Trace Elements Found in Street and Road Dusts 91 Susanne M. Charlesworth, Eduardo De Miguel, Almudena Ordonez, and Colin A. Booth 7.1 Introduction 91 7.2 Sources of Street and Road Dusts 92 7.3 House Dust 98 7.4 Urban Soil 99 7.5 Urban Geochemical Cycles 99 7.6 Conclusions 100 References 101 8 Bioaccessibility of Trace Elements in Urban Environments 107 Eduardo De Miguel, Almudena Ordonez, Fernando Barrio?Parra, Miguel Izquierdo?Diaz, Rodrigo Alvarez, Juan Mingot, and Susanne M. Charlesworth 8.1 Introduction 107 8.2 Analytical Protocols 108 8.3 Bioaccessibility and Urban Environments 109 8.4 Bioaccessibility and Human Health Risk Assessment 113 8.5 Conclusions 113 References 113 9 The Necessity for Urban Wastewater Collection, Treatment, and Disposal 119 Colin A. Booth, David Oloke, Andrew Gooding, and Susanne M. Charlesworth 9.1 Introduction 119 9.2 Wastewater Collection in Developed Countries 120 9.3 Wastewater Treatment and Disposal in Developed Countries 121 9.4 Sludge Treatment and Disposal in Developed Countries 124 9.5 WASH in Developing Countries 125 9.6 Conclusions 127 References 127 10 Living Green Roofs 131 Sara Wilkinson and Fraser Torpy 10.1 Introduction 131 10.2 Increasing Urbanisation: Urban Growth 131 10.3 Increasing Urbanisation: Soil, Water, and Air Pollution 132 10.4 Urban Heat Islands and Human Health 135 10.5 Green Roof Options 137 10.6 Case Study: University of Technology, Sydney, Food?Producing Roof and Urban Pollution 139 10.7 Conclusions and Next Steps 140 References 141 11 Light Pollution 147 Fabio Falchi 11.1 Introduction 147 11.2 Environmental and Health Effects of Light Pollution 149 11.3 How to Reduce Light Pollution 151 11.4. The example of the Italian Regional Laws 153 11.5 Conclusions 155 References 156 12 The Role of Forensic Science in the Investigation and Control of Urban Pollution 161 Kenneth Pye 12.1 Introduction 161 12.2 Types of Urban Pollutants 161 12.3 Stages in the Forensic Investigation of Urban Pollution 165 12.4 Methods Used to Identify Sources of Pollutants 165 12.5 Conclusions 168 References 169 13 River Ecology and Urban Pollution 173 Martin Fenn 13.1 Introduction 173 13.2 History of River Ecology Monitoring 174 13.3 Success Stories 184 13.4 Conclusions 185 References 185 14 Urban Meadows on Brownfield Land 187 Lynn Besenyei 14.1 Introduction 187 14.2 Creating Flower?Rich Meadows 189 14.3 Brownfield Soils for Meadow Creation 192 14.4 Management of Created Meadows 193 14.5 Opportunities for Urban Meadow Creation 195 14.6 Conclusions 196 References 196 15 Urban Pollution and Ecosystem Services 199 Rebecca Wade 15.1 Introduction 199 15.2 Ecosystem Services (ES), the Ecosystem Approach, and Ecosystem Service Valuation 199 15.3 Urban Impacts on ES 201 15.4 ES and Urban Pollution in the UK Legislative Context 202 15.5 Enhancing Urban ES to Mitigate Urban Pollution 203 15.6 Conclusions 206 References 207 16 Greywater Recycling and Reuse 211 Katherine Hyde and Matthew Smith 16.1 Introduction 211 16.2 The Ubiquitous Nature of Pollutants in Wastewater from Baths, Showers, and Handbasins 211 16.3 The Quality of Untreated Greywater and Its Water Resource Value 212 16.4 Greywater Terminologies Used in this Chapter 213 16.5 Pollutants in Untreated Greywater 213 16.6 Standardising Greywater Treatment Systems: Removing and Minimising Pollutant Concentrations 214 16.7 Managing the Environmental Characteristics, Applications, and Urban Uses of Treated Greywater 216 16.8 University of Reading's 2016 Experimental Irrigation of Sedum using Treated Greywater 217 16.9 Soil Results Evaluated during Irrigation using Greywater Constituents 218 16.10 Applying the Principles of Controlled Waters to Greywater Discharges for Sustaining Green Infrastructure 218 16.11 Concluding Comments and Review 220 Acknowledgements 220 References 220 17 Containment of Pollution from Urban Waste Disposal Sites 223 Isaac I. Akinwumi, Colin A. Booth, Oluwapelumi O. Ojuri, Adebanji S. Ogbiye, and Akinwale O. Coker 17.1 Introduction 223 17.2 Generation of Waste Worldwide 224 17.3 Waste Management Issues 224 17.4 Landfill Liners 229 17.5 Conclusions 231 References 231 18 Mitigating Urban Pollution through Innovative Use of Construction Materials 235 Jamal M. Khatib, A. A. Elkordy, and Z. Abou Saleh 18.1 Introduction 235 18.2 Recycled Materials 235 18.3 Cement Replacement and Geopolymer?Based Materials 237 18.4 Innovative Ways of Using Waste Clay 238 18.5 Treatment and Stabilisation of Contaminated Sites 239 18.6 Incineration of Municipal Solid Waste 239 18.7 Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) Wastes 240 18.8 Paper Industry Waste 240 18.9 Shelled Compressed Earth 241 18.10 Innovative Green Construction Materials 241 18.11 Innovative Chemical Admixtures for Construction Materials 242 18.12 Conclusions 242 References 243 19 Application of Zeolites to Environmental Remediation 249 Craig D. Williams 19.1 Introduction 249 19.2 Heavy Metal Removal 249 19.3 Pesticide Removal 250 19.4 Zeolites Used in Transport 250 19.5 Zeolites Used in Wastewater Treatment 251 19.6 Zeolites Used in Nuclear Clean?Up 251 19.7 Zeolites in Organic Clean?Up 252 19.8 Zeolites used in Agriculture 252 19.9 Zeolites as Slow Release Agents 254 19.10 Zeolite Safety 254 19.11 Conclusions 255 References 255 20 Bioremediation in Urban Pollution Mitigation: Theoretical Background and Applications to Groundwaters 259 Alan P. Newman, Andrew B. Shuttleworth, and Ernest O. Nnadi 20.1 Introduction 259 20.2 Essentials for Bioremediation 259 20.3 Bioremediation of Groundwater 262 20.4 In Situ Plume Treatment 262 20.5 Electron Acceptor Management in Groundwater Bioremediation 264 20.6 Oxygen Releasing Compounds 265 20.7 Anaerobic Bioremediation of Groundwater 266 20.8 Reductive Anaerobic Degradation 267 20.9 PRBs and Bioremediation 268 20.10 Reductive Biodegradation in Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) 270 20.11 Conclusion 270 References 270 21 Bioremediation in Urban Pollution Mitigation: Applications to Solid Media 277 Andrew B. Shuttleworth, Alan P. Newman, and Ernest O. Nnadi 21.1 Introduction 277 21.2 In Situ Treatment above the Water Table 278 21.3 Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation 280 21.4 Ex Situ Bioremediation in Unsaturated Strata 282 21.5 Conclusion 288 References 289 22 Use of Environmental Management Systems to Mitigate Urban Pollution 293 Rosemary Horry and Colin A. Booth 22.1 Introduction 293 22.2 Why Is Environmental Management Important? 293 22.3 Organisational Benefits and Barriers of Implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) 294 22.4 What can Companies do in Relation to their Environmental Impacts? 294 22.5 What Happens when Things Go Wrong? 297 22.6 Conclusions 301 References 301 23 Role of Citizen Science in Air Quality Monitoring 303 Natasha Constant 23.1 Introduction 303 23.2 Air Pollution in Urban Environments 304 23.3 Citizen Science and New Advances in Air Quality Monitoring 304 23.4 Citizen Science, Biomonitoring, and Plants 306 23.5 Social Dimensions of Citizen Science Air Quality Monitoring 307 23.6 Conclusions 308 References 309 24 Unique Environmental Regulatory Framework Streamlines Clean?Up and Encourages Urban Redevelopment in Massachusetts, United States 313 Catherine M. Malagrida, Ileen Gladstone, and Ryan S. Hoffman 24.1 Introduction 313 24.2 LSPs and the Privatised System 314 24.3 The Risk?Based Clean?Up Programme 314 24.4 Brownfield Redevelopment Incentives 315 24.5 Case Studies 315 24.6 Conclusions 324 References 325 25 Urban Pollution in China 327 Jianmin Ma and Jianzhong Xu 25.1 Introduction 327 25.2 Urban Air Pollution in China 327 25.3 Urban Land/Soil Pollution 332 25.4 Municipal Waste Contamination in Urban China 332 25.5 A Case Study of Urban Pollution in Beijing 333 25.6 Conclusions 337 References 337 26 Urban Pollution in India 341 Manoj Shrivastava, Avijit Ghosh, Ranjan Bhattacharyya, and S.D. Singh 26.1 Introduction 341 26.2 Issues Related to Urban Pollution in India 341 26.3 Pollution from Solid Waste and Wastewater in Indian Urban Areas 345 26.4 Air Pollution in Urban Areas of India 346 26.5 Water Pollution in Urban Areas of India 348 26.6 Soil Contamination in Urban Areas of India 350 26.7 Noise Pollution in Urban Areas of India 350 26.8 Ways to Reduce Urban Pollution in India 351 26.9 Conclusions 352 References 352 27 Urban Aquatic Pollution in Brazil 357 Felippe Fernandes, Paulo Roberto Bairros Da Silva, Cristiano Poleto, and Susanne M. Charlesworth 27.1 Introduction 357 27.2 Current Brazilian Environmental Regulations 358 27.3 Ecological Risk Assessment Approaches in Brazil 360 27.4 Environmental Studies in Brazil 361 27.5 A Case Study of Curitiba, Parana 365 27.6 Conclusions 366 References 367 28 Potentially Toxic Metal?Bearing Phases in Urban Dust and Suspended Particulate Matter: The Case of Budapest, Hungary 371 Peter Sipos, Tibor Nemeth, Viktoria Kovacs Kis, Norbert Zajzon, Chung Choi, and Zoltan May 28.1 Introduction 371 28.2 Materials and Methods 372 28.3 Results and Discussion 373 28.4 Conclusions 379 References 380 29 The Role of Urban Planning in Sub?Saharan Africa Urban Pollution Management 385 Kwasi Gyau Baffour Awuah 29.1 Introduction 385 29.2 Overview of Urban Pollution in Sub?Saharan Africa (SSA) 386 29.3 Urban Planning as a Panacea 389 29.4 Lessons for SSA Urban Planning 392 References 393 30 Water Pollution and Urbanisation Trends in Lebanon: Litani River Basin Case Study 397 Jamal M. Khatib, Safaa Baydoun, and A. A. ElKordi 30.1 Introduction 397 30.2 Water Resources in Lebanon 399 30.3 Urbanisation Trends 400 30.4 Wastewater Management 401 30.5 Water Quality 402 30.6 The Case of the Litani River Basin 403 30.7 Urbanisation and Water Pollution Trends 404 30.8 Pollution Impact 408 30.9 Current Management Efforts and Strategies 409 30.10 Conclusions and Recommendations 409 References 410 31 Closing Comments on Urban Pollution 417 Susanne M. Charlesworth and Colin A. Booth 31.1 Introduction 417 31.2 The Future for Towns and Cities 421 Reference 421 Index 423

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SUSANNE M. CHARLESWORTH is a Professor of Urban Physical Geography in the Centre for Agroecology, Water and Resilience at Coventry University, United Kingdom. COLIN A. BOOTH is Associate Head of Research and Scholarship for the School of Architecture and the Built Environment at the University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.

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