Essentials of Polymer Flooding Technique

Author:   Antoine Thomas
Publisher:   John Wiley and Sons Ltd
ISBN:  

9781119537588


Pages:   328
Publication Date:   02 May 2019
Format:   Hardback
Availability:   To order   Availability explained
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Essentials of Polymer Flooding Technique


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Overview

Provides an easy-to-read introduction to the area of polymer flooding to improve oil production The production and utilization of oil has transformed our world. However, dwindling reserves are forcing industry to manage resources more efficiently, while searching for alternative fuel sources that are sustainable and environmentally friendly. Polymer flooding is an enhanced oil recovery technique that improves sweep, reduces water production, and improves recovery in geological reservoirs. This book summarizes the key factors associated with polymers and polymer flooding-from the selection of the type of polymer through characterization techniques, to field design and implementation-and discusses the main issues to consider when deploying this technology to improve oil recovery from mature reservoirs. Essentials of Polymer Flooding Technique introduces the area of polymer flooding at a basic level for those new to petroleum production. It describes how polymers are used to improve efficiency of chemical floods (involving surfactants and alkaline solutions). The book also offers a concise view of several key polymer-flooding topics that can't be found elsewhere. These are in the areas of pilot project design, field project engineering (water quality, oxygen removal, polymer dissolution equipment, filtration, pumps and other equipment), produced water treatment, economics, and some of the important field case histories that appear in the last section. Provides an easy to read introduction to polymer flooding to improve oil production whilst presenting the underlying mechanisms Employs In A Nutshell key point summaries at the end of each chapter Includes important field case studies to aid researchers in addressing time- and financial-consumption in dealing with this issue Discusses field engineering strategies appropriate for professionals working in field operation projects Essentials of Polymer Flooding Technique is an enlightening book that will be of great interest to petroleum engineers, reservoir engineers, geoscientists, managers in petroleum industry, students in the petroleum industry, and researchers in chemical enhanced oil recovery methods.

Full Product Details

Author:   Antoine Thomas
Publisher:   John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Imprint:   Wiley-Blackwell
Dimensions:   Width: 16.30cm , Height: 2.10cm , Length: 23.20cm
Weight:   0.666kg
ISBN:  

9781119537588


ISBN 10:   1119537584
Pages:   328
Publication Date:   02 May 2019
Audience:   Professional and scholarly ,  Professional & Vocational
Format:   Hardback
Publisher's Status:   Active
Availability:   To order   Availability explained
Stock availability from the supplier is unknown. We will order it for you and ship this item to you once it is received by us.

Table of Contents

Preface xv Abbreviations xix About the Author xxiii Introduction xxv 1. Why Enhanced Oil Recovery? 3 1.1. What Is a Reservoir? 4 1.2. Hydrocarbon Recovery Mechanisms 4 1.2.1. Anecdote 7 1.3. Definitions of IOR and EOR 8 1.4. What Controls Oil Recovery? 8 1.5. Classification and Description of EOR Processes 11 1.5.1. Thermal Processes 11 1.5.2. Chemical Processes 15 1.5.3. Miscible Processes 15 1.6. Why EOR? Cost, Reserve Replacement, and Recovery Factors 17 References 20 2. Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery Methods 23 2.1. Introduction 24 2.2. Chemical EOR Methods 26 2.2.1. Polymer Flooding 27 2.2.2. High?Viscosity Polymer Slugs 32 2.2.3. Surfactant?Polymer (SP) 33 2.2.3.1. Surfactants 33 2.2.3.2. Field Cases 37 2.2.4. Alkali?Surfactant?Polymer Flooding (ASP) 38 2.2.4.1. Theory 38 2.2.4.2. Laboratory Studies 40 2.2.4.3. Economics 44 2.2.4.4. Field Cases 45 2.2.5. Other Chemical Methods 49 2.2.5.1. Gels vs. Polymer Injection 49 2.2.5.2. Colloidal Dispersion Gels 50 2.2.5.3. Microgels and Nanogels 53 2.2.5.4. Relative Permeability Modifiers (RPM) 54 References 56 3. Polymer Flooding 65 3.1. Introduction 66 3.2. Concept 67 3.2.1. Fractional Flow 67 3.2.2. Polymer Flooding Applicability 70 3.2.3. Timing 71 3.3. Envelope of Application 73 3.3.1. History 73 3.3.2. Reservoir Prescreening 77 3.3.2.1. Lithology 78 3.3.2.2. Wettability 78 3.3.2.3. Current Oil Saturation 80 3.3.2.4. Porosity Type 80 3.3.2.5. Gas Cap 80 3.3.2.6. Aquifer 81 3.3.2.7. Salinity/Hardness 81 3.3.2.8. Dykstra?Parsons 82 3.3.2.9. Clays 83 3.3.2.10. Water-cut 84 3.3.2.11. Flooding Pattern and Spacing 85 3.4. Conclusions 85 References 87 4. Polymers 91 4.1. Introduction 92 4.2. Polyacrylamide - Generalities 93 4.2.1. Introduction 93 4.2.2. Monomers 93 4.2.2.1. Acrylamide 93 4.2.2.2. Acrylic Acid 95 4.2.2.3. ATBS 95 4.2.2.4. N?Vinylpyrrolidone 96 4.2.3. Polymerization Processes 96 4.2.3.1. Gel Polymerization Process 97 4.2.3.2. Inverse Emulsion Polymerization Process 98 4.3. Polymer Selection Guidelines 99 4.3.1. Generalities 99 4.3.1.1. Polymer Form 100 4.3.1.2. Polymer Chemistry 101 4.3.1.3. Polymer Molecular Weight 101 4.3.2. Polymer Selection 102 4.3.2.1. Molecular Weight 103 4.3.3. Other Polymer Families 103 4.3.3.1. Associative Polymers 103 4.3.3.2. Thermoresponsive Polymers 105 4.4. Polymer Characteristics and Rheology 105 4.4.1. Viscosity 106 4.4.1.1. Generalities 106 4.4.2. Rheology 109 4.4.3. Solubility 110 4.5. Polymer Stability 110 4.5.1. Chemical Degradation 110 4.5.1.1. Oxygen 111 4.5.1.2. Iron 112 4.5.1.3. Protection from Chemical Degradation 112 4.5.2. Mechanical Degradation 114 4.5.3. Thermal Degradation 115 4.5.4. Improving Polymer Stability 117 4.6. Laboratory Evaluations 118 4.6.1. Solubility and Filterability 119 4.6.1.1. Solubility 119 4.6.1.2. Filterability 119 4.6.2. Viscosity 121 4.6.3. Shear Resistance 124 4.6.4. Screen Factor 125 4.6.5. Long?Term Stability 126 4.6.6. Compatibility Tests 127 4.6.7. Core Flooding 128 4.6.7.1. Generalities 129 4.6.7.2. Equipment and Tips for Injection 140 4.6.8. Quality Control 141 4.6.9. Heath, Safety, and Environment 142 4.6.9.1. Product Handling 142 4.6.9.2. Anionic Polyacrylamide in the Marine Environment 143 4.6.9.3. Biodegradability 144 4.6.9.4. Polyacrylamides as a Nitrogen Source 145 4.6.9.5. Polyacrylamides as a Carbon Source 145 4.6.9.6. About Acrylamide Reformation and Toxicity 147 References 149 5. Polymer Flooding - Pilot Design 159 5.1. Reservoir Screening - Reminder 160 5.2. Pilot Design 161 5.2.1. Pattern Selection 162 5.2.2. How Much Polymer? 165 5.2.3. Injection Protocol 168 5.2.3.1. Start?Up of Polymer Injection 168 5.2.3.2. Ending Polymer Injection 168 5.2.3.3. Voidage Replacement Ratio (VRR) 169 5.3. Injectivity 171 5.3.1. Discussion on Injectivity 174 5.4. Monitoring 180 5.5. Modeling 181 5.6. Quality Control 182 5.7. Specific Considerations for Offshore Implementation 183 References 186 6. Engineering 189 6.1. Preliminary Requirements 190 6.1.1. Water Quality 190 6.1.2. Oxygen Removal 191 6.1.3. Requirements for Design 192 6.1.4. Powder vs. Emulsion 194 6.2. Injection Equipment for Emulsions 195 6.3. Injection Equipment for Powders 195 6.3.1. Dispersion and Dissolution 195 6.3.2. Maturation 198 6.4. Field Development Approaches Onshore 198 6.4.1. Existing Waterflooding in the Field 200 6.4.1.1. One Pump per Well - Injecting Mother Solution 201 6.4.1.2. One Pump for Several Wells - Injecting Mother Solution 201 6.4.2. No Existing Waterflooding in the Field 201 6.4.2.1. One Pump per Well - Injecting Diluted Solution 02 6.4.2.2. One Pump for Several Wells - Injecting Diluted Solution 202 6.4.3. Logistics for Onshore Projects 202 6.5. Key Considerations for Offshore Implementation 205 6.6. ASP Process 209 6.6.1. ASP Reminder 209 6.6.2. Water Softening 209 6.6.3. Chemicals 211 6.6.3.1. Alkali 211 6.6.3.2. Surfactant 212 6.6.4. Mixing of All Products 213 6.7. From the Dissolution Point to the Wellhead 214 6.7.1. Viscosity Monitoring 214 6.7.2. Non?shearing Chokes 216 References 218 7. Produced Water Treatment 221 7.1. Introduction 222 7.2. Generalities 224 7.2.1. Produced Water Characteristics 224 7.2.2. Oil and Gas Processing 226 7.3. Oil and Gas Separation 226 7.3.1. Separators 226 7.3.2. Heater Treaters 228 7.4. Water Treatment 229 7.4.1. Introduction and Generalities 229 7.4.2. Gravity Separation 229 7.4.2.1. Deoilers 231 7.4.3. Gas Flotation 232 7.4.4. Cyclonic Separation 234 7.4.5. Centrifuges 234 7.4.6. Filtration 235 7.4.6.1. Media Filters 235 7.4.6.2. Membranes 237 7.5. Polymer Degradation 239 7.5.1. Polymer Removal 240 7.5.2. Chemical Oxidation 241 7.5.3. Electro?Oxidation 241 7.5.4. Mechanical Degradation 242 7.5.5. Ultrasonic Degradation 242 7.5.6. Thermal Degradation 243 7.5.7. UV - Advanced Oxidation Processes 243 7.6. Conclusions and Discussion 244 References 248 8. Economics 251 8.1. Introduction 252 8.2. Cost Overview 252 8.2.1. Water Handling and Injection 253 8.2.2. Cost of EOR Chemicals 255 8.2.3. Additional Costs for ASP Flooding 256 8.3. Example - Polymer Flooding 257 8.4. Examples - SP and ASP 260 8.4.1. SP 260 8.4.2. ASP 262 8.4.3. Comparison P - SP - ASP 264 8.5. Conclusions 265 References 268 9. Field Cases 271 9.1. Introduction 272 9.2. Envelope of Application 275 9.3. Other Interesting Field Cases 281 9.3.1. Economic Benefits of Polymer Injection 281 9.3.2. Injection Under Fracturing Conditions 281 9.3.3. High?Temperature Reservoirs 281 9.4. Conclusions 283 References 285 Index 289

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Author Information

Antoine Thomas holds an MSc in Petroleum Geosciences from the Ecole Nationale Superieure de Geologie in Nancy, France (2009). He joined SNF in 2011 as a reservoir engineer dealing with Polymer Flooding project design, implementation and assistance, for various customers worldwide. In 2013, he spent part of his time in the R&D department, building the core flooding capacities for SNF and managing R&D projects in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and hydraulic fracturing. He moved to Moscow in 2018 to supervise the Oil & Gas business, from a technical standpoint, while maintaining contact with all SNF subsidiaries.

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